Later this decade, humans will stand on the lunar surface once more. The suits they will wear will be far more advanced than those of the Apollo astronauts.

21世紀20年代后期,人類將再次登月,他們所穿的航天服將比“阿波羅”航天員的航天服先進得多。

It will be the ultimate catwalk.

這將是一場終極時裝秀。

In 2025, when Nasa's Artemis III mission returns humanity to the Moon, billions of eyes will focus on two astronauts. And what they're wearing. Although the astronauts will undoubtedly bounce, rather than sashay, upon the lunar surface.

2025 年,當美國宇航局的阿爾忒彌斯3號登月計劃讓人類重返月球時,數十億人的目光將聚焦在兩名航天員身上。還有他們穿什么,但航天員肯定會在月球表面跳躍,而不是大搖大擺地行走。
原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ribblestockfxtrade.com 轉載請注明出處


The geeks among us already had a glimpse of what's in store after a recent preview in Texas, at Nasa's Houston Space Center. There, a new spacesuit prototype made its debut for a new era of lunar travel.

我們當中的極客們最近在預覽了德克薩斯州美國宇航局的休斯頓航天中心后,已經對即將發生的事情有所了解。一款新的航天服原型在那里首次亮相,開啟了月球旅行的新時代。

And on display? One spacesuit, in fashionable black with flashes of orange and blue. Although, when multiple suits appear on the rack, they'll all be classic white - like those used for the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago.

那么展出的是?一套時髦的黑色航天服,帶有橙藍相間的色帶。不過,當多套航天服在衣架上亮相時,它們都將是經典的白色——就像 50 多年前用于阿波羅計劃的航天服一樣。

Unlike Apollo, however, these lunar spacesuits will also have a new designer label: Axiom Space. Founded in 2016, this comparative newcomer of a company has already conducted the first private astronaut mission and also plans to build the first commercial space station.

不過與阿波羅計劃不同的是,這批登月服還將有一個新的設計師品牌:公理航天(Axiom Space)。這家相對較新的公司成立于2016年,已經執行了首次私人航天員發射任務,并計劃建造第一個商業空間站。

"It definitely felt like we were the new kid on the block," says Mark Greeley, Axiom's EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity or spacewalk) programme manager, who has managed space suit and launch entry suit projects for Nasa throughout his career. "But many of us, probably 90% of the team, has worked in EVA in some form or fashion for their entire career."

公理航天的艙外活動或太空行走(EVA)項目經理馬克·格里利表示:“感覺我們完全就像初來乍到似的”。他在整個職業生涯中一直為美國宇航局管理航天服和艙內航天服項目?!暗覀冎械脑S多人(約占團隊的90%)在整個職業生涯中都以某種形式或方式參與 EVA 項目”。

Like Greeley, many Axiom Space staff are ex-Nasa with a leadership team that includes former Nasa administrator and astronaut, Charlie Bolden, as their business development consultant. There was also a touch of star quality involved in Axiom's prototype suit in the form of Esther Marquis.

與格里利一樣,公理航天的許多員工都來自美國宇航局,其領導團隊包括前美國宇航局局長兼航天員查理·博爾登,擔任該公司的業務發展顧問。公理航天的航天服原型還帶有一絲明星氣質,那就是埃斯特·馬奎斯(Esther Marquis)。

Marquis was lead textile designer for the Marvel movie Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings and is the costume designer for the award-winning Apple TV+ space drama series For All Mankind.

馬奎斯是漫威電影《尚氣與十環傳奇》的首席面料設計師,也是屢獲殊榮的 Apple TV+ 太空科幻劇《為了全人類》的服裝設計師。

"With any design challenge there is a level of engagement and commitment one undertakes to achieve the requested goal," says Marquis. "I was eager to apply ideas obtained from my experiences."

“設計上的任何挑戰都需要一定程度的敬業和投入才能達到目標要求”,馬奎斯說?!拔铱释\用從自身經驗中獲取的想法”。


The new suit was unveiled to the public, with black coverings to conceal some of the more secret parts of its design

新款航天服公開亮相,黑色遮蓋物蓋住了比較保密的設計部位。

And there was good reason for the prototype suit's outer layer being black.

航天服原型的外層被設計成黑色是有原因的。

"My job was to design a 'Custom Cover Layer' to conceal the suit's proprietary design during the spacesuit reveal event held in March," she says. "I am very familiar with historical spacesuits having used them on our show. I wanted to pay homage to that legacy and celebrate space exploration. It was a terrific opportunity to meet and talk about spacesuit design with a company that is actually sending individuals to space and I was delighted to discover that Axiom spacesuit engineers are indeed artists, creatively solving complex problems."

“我的工作是設計一款‘定制的遮蓋層’,以便在三月份舉行的航天服發布會期間遮蓋航天服的專利設計”,她說道?!拔曳浅J煜v史上的航天服在我們的節目中都曾使用過遮蓋層。我想向這一遺產致敬,并慶祝太空探索。這是一個絕佳的機會,可以與一家真正將個人送入太空的公司當面探討航天服的設計,我驚喜地發現 公理航天的航天服工程師真的是藝術家,能夠創造性地解決復雜的問題”。
原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ribblestockfxtrade.com 轉載請注明出處


Hand and machine sewing often plays an important role within the space industry – be it on spacesuits, the fabric between the Space Shuttle tiles or on the heat shields of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury.

手工和機器縫紉通常在航天工業中發揮著重要作用——包括航天服、航天飛機絕熱瓦之間的織物、比皮科倫坡水星探測器的隔熱罩表面的織物。

"It takes a lot of expert seamstresses, or soft goods technicians, to do that kind of work," agrees Greeley. "And they're truly artists."

格里利表示贊同:“這需要許多專業女裁縫或紡織品技術人員來完成此類工作”?!八麄兪钦嬲乃囆g家”。

First and foremost, of course, the new lunar spacesuits are essential, life-supporting pieces of equipment to supply air and protect astronauts from radiation and micrometeoroids. Despite the legacy, there's always room for improvement.

當然,首要的是,新款月球航天服是維持生命必不可少的設備,用于供應空氣和保護航天員免受輻射和微流星體的傷害。盡管有這份遺產,但總有改進的空間。

"Apollo used zippers, metal cables and rubber in the suits that were 1960s technology and fine when used for one mission but that's no longer the case," says Bill Ayrey, author of the book Lunar Outfitters: Making the Apollo Space Suit.

《月球裝備店:制造阿波羅航天服》一書的作者比爾·艾雷表示:“阿波羅號的航天服使用了拉鏈、金屬纜繩、橡膠,這些都是 20 世紀 60 年代的技術,在一次性任務中使用效果很好,但現在情況不同了”。

"The biggest advances came just after Apollo when the Shuttle suit was designed and made up of many components that could be switched out to accommodate a wider range of crew members," says Ayrey, a former space suit test engineer and historian at ILC Dover. This is the company that made the Apollo suits and those used by astronauts today performing spacewalks from the International Space Station (ISS). ILC Dover is one of Collins Aerospace's partners for making new spacesuits for the ISS.

“最大的進步出現在阿波羅計劃之后,當時的航天服被設計成由許多可替換的部件組成,以適應更廣泛的機組人員”,ILC Dover公司的前航天服測試工程師和歷史學家艾雷說道。這家公司制造過阿波羅航天服,以及當今在國際空間站外進行太空行走的航天員所穿的航天服。ILC Dover是Collins Aerospace公司為國際空間站制造新款航天服的合作伙伴之一。

Many spacesuit materials for both environments still originate from the 1950s and 60s and include spandex, in the snug suit layer for liquid cooling ventilation; Mylar for insulation; Kevlar, which is used in bulletproof vests; flame resistant Nomex, worn by racing drivers; and urethane-coated nylon which can have welded seams and is typically used for the innermost airtight pressure garment 'bladder'.

許多適用于艙內外兩種環境的航天服材料仍然源自20世紀五六十年代,其中包括用于液冷和通風的氨綸舒適層;用于絕緣的聚酯薄膜;用于防彈背心的凱芙拉纖維;賽車手穿的諾梅克斯阻燃面料;涂有氨基甲酸乙酯的尼龍可以有焊縫,通常用于最里層的氣密性壓力服的內膽。


The new spacesuits for the lunar surface won''t be as bulky as the ones currently used on spacewalks

用于登月的新款航天服不會像目前太空行走中使用的航天服那么笨重。

"Today's suits will utilise advanced composites," says Ayrey, "and other materials to provide structural strength and allow for sizing adjustments and provide greater comfort while also providing an extended lifespan of the suit components."

“如今的航天服將采用先進的復合材料”,艾雷說道,“以及其他材料來提供結構強度,并考慮了尺寸調節,穿起來更加舒適,同時延長航天服部件的使用壽命”。

The sizing is important. In 2019 Nasa had to delay its first all-female spacewalk because the ISS did not have enough spacesuits in the right size.

尺寸很重要。2019 年,由于國際空間站沒有足夠的合適尺寸的航天服,美國宇航局不得不推遲了首次全女性航天員太空行走。

However, since Nasa had already begun work on the new suit before turning it over to industry, Axiom did not have to begin with a blank page. "We started making modifications where designs weren't closed or complete or where our team's expertise knew that we could make improvements," says Greeley.

然而,由于美國宇航局在將新款航天服移交給業界之前就已經開始了研究工作,所以公理航天不必從頭開始?!拔覀冮_始進行修改,包括設計尚未結束或不完整的地方,以及我們團隊的專家知道有待于改進的地方”,格里利說道。

"There are a few components, like the hard upper torso and the helmet bubble, that were pretty mature in design but we completely redesigned the pressure garment system. We also reduced [the suit's] mass – a big change, we've taken 20lbs (9kg) out of the suit so far – and we increased mobility."

“有幾個部件在設計上相當成熟,例如:硬質上軀干、泡泡頭盔,但我們完全重新設計了壓力衣系統。我們還減少了航天服的重量——這是一個重大變化,到目前為止我們已經使航天服減輕了20 磅(9公斤)重量——我們還提高了機動能力”。

The angle of the helmet on the Axiom suit no longer resembles a traditional upturned Apollo goldfish bowl either, as it is tilted with extended viewing below the horizon. "For lunar spacesuits, the astronauts are looking down most of the time."

“公理航天”航天服的頭盔視角也不再像傳統朝上的阿波羅魚缸式頭盔,因為新頭盔是傾斜的,視野可以延伸到地平線以下?!按┲窃路暮教靻T大部分時間都在注視下方”。

The Moon also has one-sixth of Earth's gravity and this affects the design. "Lunar spacesuits need to be light in weight because they are used in a gravity environment," says Ayrey. "Also, planetary and lunar suits must provide excellent lower torso mobility since you are walking in a gravity environment and not just floating around."

月球的引力是地球的六分之一,這會影響設計?!暗窃路枰亓枯p,因為它們是在重力環境下使用的”,艾雷說道?!按送?,行星服和登月服必須提供出色的下軀干機動能力,因為你是在重力環境中行走,而不僅僅是漂浮”。

Former Nasa astronaut, Peggy Whitson, described the prototype as "a great example of what innovation can do. This is going to be a much more flexible suit."

前美國宇航局的航天員佩吉·惠特森將這款航天服原型描述為“創新的好榜樣,這將是一款更加靈活的航天服”。


More than 50 years will separate the suits worn by Apollo programme Moon explorers and the Artemis astronauts

阿波羅計劃月球探險者和阿爾忒彌斯號航天員所穿的航天服將相隔50多年。

She should know. Whitson currently holds the world record for the longest cumulative time in space (665 days) and, as Axiom's head of human spaceflight, is set to extend that record even further on 8 May as commander of Ax-2, the company's second private mission to the ISS. Several astronauts, including Whitson, also had input into the new suit.

她應該知道?;萏厣壳氨3种谔罩欣塾嬐A魰r間最長的世界紀錄(665 天),作為公理航天載人航天部門的負責人,他將于 5 月 8 日作為 Ax-2 任務的指揮官,準備進一步延長這一記錄,Ax-2 是該公司第二次向國際空間站運送私人航天員的任務。包括惠特森在內的幾位航天員也對新款航天服提出了意見。

"I think the most common comment from astronauts is keep it simple," says Greeley. For the gloves, it's to make sure "they have the right dexterity and keep their hands warm or cool, depending on the environment. Having worked on multiple programmes, I would say our gloves are probably the best that I've seen."

“我認為航天員最普遍的意見是保持簡單”,格里利說。確保手套“具有適當的靈活性,并根據環境保持雙手溫暖或涼爽。在參與多個項目后,我想說我們的手套可能是我見過的最好的”。

Temperatures on the lunar surface are extreme. Unlike the Earth, the Moon has a cycle of around 14 days daylight and 14 days night. During darkness, temperatures can drop to -253C (-424F), and reach up to 120C (250F) during sunlight. The Apollo astronauts needed that solar power, as will Artemis crew members, and their suits were white to reflect heat and keep body temperatures from becoming dangerously high.

月球表面的溫度非常高。與地球不同,月球的周期約為 14 天白天和 14 天夜晚。夜晚溫度可降至-253C (-424F),白天溫度可達120C (250F)。阿波羅號的航天員需要太陽能,阿爾忒彌斯號的航天員也是如此,他們的航天服是白色的,可以反射熱量,防止體溫升至危險的高位。

During the Apollo missions the ultra-fine moondust, or regolith, interfered with instruments, caused radiators to overheat and damaged spacesuits. "It will be critical to assure that lunar dust cannot penetrate into the inner layers, the metal bearings and other components," says Ayrey.

在阿波羅任務期間,超細的月球塵?;蝻L化層會干擾儀器,導致散熱器過熱并損壞航天服。艾雷說:“確保月球塵埃不會滲透到內層、金屬軸承及其他部件是至關重要的”。

Once complete, the new lunar Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AxEMU) spacesuit must undergo a test in a space-like environment. A Nasa spokesperson outlined what's required: "An analogue demo could consist of taking place underwater using weight relief, using a thermal vacuum chamber or other methods approved by Nasa."

一旦設計完成,新的月球艙外機動裝置(AxEMU)航天服必須在類似太空的環境中接受測試。美國宇航局發言人概述了要求:“模擬演示可分為失重的水下環境、利用熱真空艙、以及美國宇航局批準的其他方法”。

The final test, of course, will be on the Moon itself. Failure there is definitely not an option.

當然,最終的測試將在月球上進行。只能成功,不許失敗。