Rack of squirrel, anyone? The chefs putting invasive species on the menu
-‘Invasivorism’ is a growing ethical dining trend but is ‘eat them to beat them’ really the answer?

有人要松鼠頸脊肉嗎?廚師們把入侵物種加進了菜單
——“入侵物種吃光主義”是一種日益增長的道德飲食趨勢,但“吃掉它們來打敗它們”真的是答案嗎?

原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ribblestockfxtrade.com 轉載請注明出處



(Roast rack of squirrel, fondant jersey royal potatoes, carrot and wild garlic served at Paul Wedgwood’s restaurant in Edinburgh, Scotland.)

(蘇格蘭愛丁堡的保羅·韋奇伍德餐廳里的烤松鼠頸脊肉、方旦糖澤西皇家土豆、胡蘿卜和野生大蒜。)
新聞:

From oral contraceptives to proposals to edit their DNA, efforts to control the UK’s invasive grey squirrel population have become increasingly elaborate. But a growing number of chefs and conservationists have a far simpler idea, which they see as part of the trend in ethical dining: eat them.

從口服避孕藥到建議編輯它們的DNA,控制入侵英國的灰松鼠數量的努力變得越來越復雜。但越來越多的廚師和環保人士有一個簡單得多的想法,他們認為這是道德飲食趨勢的一部分:吃掉它們。

“My original starting point with grey squirrel was taste. But it’s also great for the environment,” says Paul Wedgwood, one of Scotland’s leading chefs, whose restaurant on Edinburgh’s Royal Mile has had grey squirrel on the menu since 2008. Wedgwood has even made haggis from the North American rodent that has driven the local extinction of the native red across much of England and Wales.

“我最初烹飪灰松鼠的出發點是口味。但這對環境也很好,”蘇格蘭頂級廚師之一保羅·韋奇伍德說。他在愛丁堡皇家英里大道的餐廳自2008年以來一直將灰松鼠列入菜單。韋奇伍德甚至用這種北美嚙齒動物做雜碎,這種動物導致了英格蘭和威爾士大部分地區的本地紅松鼠的滅絕。

“It’s mellow, nutty and a bit gamey. It’s just a really nice flavour, and it’s easy to match. Anyone who’s doing rabbit could just easily swap in squirrel,” he says.

“它醇厚、有堅果味,還有點野味。味道很好,很容易搭配。任何烹飪兔子的人都能很容易地切換成松鼠,”他說。

Wedgwood is not alone among chefs putting invasive species on the menu. At Dai Due restaurant in Austin, Texas, owner and chef Jesse Griffiths is encouraging Americans to hunt and eat more of the millions of feral hogs that cause billions of dollars of damage to farmland. In the Bahamas, Michelin-starred chef José Andrés is serving up invasive lionfish to help protect reefs in the Caribbean. At Fallow in London, chefs are planning to cook king crab, the latest arrival on British shores that has sparked fears for native brown crab and scallop populations.

韋奇伍德并不是唯一一個將入侵物種列入菜單的廚師。在德克薩斯州奧斯汀的Dai Due餐廳,老板兼廚師杰西·格里菲斯正在鼓勵美國人獵殺和食用數百萬頭野豬,這些野豬給農田造成了數十億美元的損失。在巴哈馬,米其林星級廚師何塞·安德烈斯正在提供入侵的獅子魚菜肴,以幫助保護加勒比地區的珊瑚礁。在倫敦的法羅餐廳,廚師們正計劃烹制帝王蟹,這種最近抵達英國海岸的螃蟹引發了對本土褐蟹和扇貝種群的生存擔憂。

The concept of “invasivorism” was developed more than two decades ago by Joe Roman, a conservation biologist at the University of Vermont. “With this idea, humans are a form of biological control. Humans are amazing predators: whether it’s eating the grey squirrel in Britain or the European green crab in the US, we know eating them can have an impact on populations,” he says.

二十多年前,佛蒙特大學的保護生物學家喬·羅曼提出了“入侵物種吃光主義”的概念?!案鶕@個想法,人類就是一種生物控制形式。人類是驚人的捕食者:無論是在英國吃灰松鼠還是在美國吃歐洲綠蟹,我們都知道吃掉它們會對種群產生影響,”他說。

The spread of invasive species counts among the major drivers of extinctions and biodiversity loss on Earth, according to leading scientists. Not all non-native organisms become invasive, but those that do spread rapidly and outcompete native wildlife, often due to the absence of predators, causing financial and ecological damage. Examples include mice on Gough Island in the south Atlantic where the rodents eat albatross chicks in their nests, and the Burmese python in Florida’s Everglades, which has devastated mammal populations. Invasive species are also expensive: a Queen’s University Belfast study revealed this week that they have caused £878bn of damage worldwide since the 1960s, a bill set to spiral this century.

據著名科學家稱,入侵物種的傳播是地球上物種滅絕和生物多樣性喪失的主要驅動因素之一。并不是所有的非本地生物都會成為入侵物種,但那些迅速傳播并超越本地野生動物的生物(往往是由于缺乏捕食者),造成了經濟和生態上的破壞。例子包括南大西洋高夫島上的老鼠,在那里嚙齒動物會吃掉巢穴中的信天翁雛鳥,以及佛羅里達州大沼澤地的緬甸蟒蛇,它們已經摧毀了哺乳動物的數量。入侵物種的代價也很高:貝爾法斯特女王大學本周的一項研究顯示,自上世紀60年代以來,它們在全球造成了8780億英鎊的損失,這一數字還將在本世紀上升。

Roman runs the website EatTheInvaders.org, hosting recipes for invasive species in the US that include the green iguana, wakame seaweed and nutria or coypu – a river rat.

羅曼經營著EatTheInvaders.org網站,提供美國入侵物種的食譜,包括綠鬣蜥、裙帶菜和海貍鼠或河貍鼠——一種河鼠。

“We need to say from the beginning that the goal is to reduce these populations – not to create a market for them. We don’t want people to say ‘wow, this crayfish is really good. I wish we had it in this river system’ or something like that,” Roman says. “In this time of globalisation, we’re moving animals, plants and fungi around all the time that have ecological impacts. We are trying to work against that.”

“我們需要從一開始就說,我們的目標是減少這些物種數量,而不是為它們創造一個市場。我們不想讓人們說‘哇,這小龍蝦真好吃。我希望我們在這個河流系統中也有它’或類似的話,”羅曼說?!霸谶@個全球化的時代,我們一直在移動對生態有影響的動物、植物和真菌。我們正在努力反對這種情況?!?/b>

Critics are wary of how effective invasivorism can be at achieving its aims, with evidence the “eat them to beat them” approach can have the opposite effect for some species. A 2020 paper on catching invasive signal crayfish populations in North Yorkshire, where Britain’s only native crayfish is being driven out, found that traps were likely ineffective and helped spread the crayfish. Despite the crayfish being promoted by chefs including Gordon Ramsay, the report found that less than 2.5% of invasive crayfish were large enough to be caught in traditional traps, which could harm other creatures.

批評人士對入侵行為在實現其目標方面的有效性持謹慎態度,有證據表明,“吃掉它們來打敗它們”的方法對某些物種可能會產生相反的效果。2020年,一篇關于在北約克郡捕捉入侵信號小龍蝦種群的論文發現,陷阱可能是無效的,反而還幫助了小龍蝦的傳播。英國唯一的本土小龍蝦正在被趕出北約克郡。盡管包括戈登·拉姆齊在內的廚師都在推廣這種小龍蝦,但報告發現,只有不到2.5%的入侵小龍蝦大到可以用傳統的陷阱捕捉,而傳統的陷阱可能會傷害到其他生物。

Then there is the question of scale. The Wild Meat Company, which sells game from Suffolk, England, sold about 10,000 grey squirrels last year, hardly enough to dent the population of 2.7 million in the UK.

然后是規模的問題。出售英格蘭薩??艘拔兜囊拔豆救ツ曩u出了大約1萬只灰松鼠,這幾乎不足以減少英國270萬的物種數量。

In the US, a 2014 review found that while eating invasive species can reduce populations and raise public awareness, it might inadvertently provide disincentives to their eradication. It offered an 11-point strategy for using invasivorism effectively, along with following local laws on harvesting species, which differ around the world.

在美國,2014年的一項研究發現,雖然食用入侵物種可以減少物種數量并提高公眾意識,但可能會無意中阻礙它們的根除。它提出了有效利用入侵行為的11點策略,以及遵循世界各地不同的當地物種捕獲法律。

While proponents acknowledge it is not possible to turn all invasive flora and fauna into gourmet food, they say that taste is key to success.

雖然支持者承認不可能把所有入侵的動植物都變成美食,但他們說味道是成功的關鍵。

At Miya’s, a sustainable sushi restaurant in New Haven, Connecticut, head chef Bun Lai developed a dedicated invasive species menu and won the White House champions of change award in 2016 for his sustainable food.

在康涅狄格州紐黑文的可持續壽司餐廳Miya 's,主廚Bun Lai開發了一份專門的入侵物種菜單,并因其可持續食物獲得了2016年白宮變革冠軍獎。
原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ribblestockfxtrade.com 轉載請注明出處


“If we ate invasive animals such as boar and nutria instead of cows, we would have a significant impact on climate change because of their greenhouse gas emissions,” says Lai, who now runs sustainable sushi pop-ups after the closure of the restaurant in 2021.

Lai說:“如果我們吃野豬和海貍鼠等入侵動物,而不是奶牛,我們將對氣候變化產生重大影響,因為奶牛會排放溫室氣體?!彼?021年關閉餐廳后,現在經營著可持續壽司店。

“From a swamp rodent called nutria to python, poisonous cane toad and a plethora of invasive plants, I have hunted, fished and foraged many invasive species. People’s tastes are constantly changing,” he says. “In my sushi platters for decades, I’d include non-conventional ingredients. Rather than tuna, farmed salmon, eel, and yellowtail, I’d use invasive carp with black soldier fly larvae, invasive blue catfish, invasive lionfish, edible weeds, invasive plants, and organic vegetables and fruit. For years, people would tell me every day that the sushi I was making wasn’t sushi, but over time it became more accepted.”

“從一種叫做海貍鼠的沼澤嚙齒動物到蟒蛇、有毒的甘蔗蟾蜍和大量的入侵植物,我獵殺、捕撈和覓食了許多入侵物種。人們的口味在不斷變化,”他說?!皫资陙?,在我的壽司拼盤里,我都會加入非傳統的食材。我不會使用金槍魚、養殖鮭魚、鰻魚和黃尾魚,而是使用帶有黑兵蠅幼蟲的入侵鯉魚、入侵藍鯰、入侵獅子魚、可食用雜草、入侵植物和有機蔬菜和水果。多年來,人們每天都會告訴我,我做的壽司不是壽司,但隨著時間的推移,它被越來越多的人接受了?!?/b>

In the UK, time will tell whether Japanese knotweed vodka and muntjac deer burgers become part of the measures to limit invasive species. Not all invasive animals are classed as game, and therefore the public is not free to shoot, trap and consume every invasive species. But for fine diners in Scotland, grey squirrel, which it is legal to kill humanely, is already a firm favourite.

在英國,時間將證明日本虎杖伏特加和麂鹿漢堡是否會成為限制入侵物種措施的一部分。并不是所有的入侵動物都被歸類為獵物,因此公眾不能隨意射殺、誘捕和消耗每一種入侵物種。但對于蘇格蘭的高級食客來說,人道地殺死灰松鼠是合法的,它已經是他們的最愛了。

“The demand is there from customers,” says Wedgwood. “I had a guy fly in from Switzerland who ordered a squirrel tasting menu. A six-course menu … just with squirrel!”

“需求來自于客戶,”韋奇伍德說?!坝袀€家伙從瑞士飛過來,點了一份松鼠品嘗菜單。一份六道菜的菜單……只有松鼠!”

Squirrel rack, confit jersey royal potatoes, carrot puree, wild garlic
Recipe by Paul Wedgwood

松鼠頸脊肉,油炸澤西皇家土豆,胡蘿卜泥,野蒜
保羅·韋奇伍德的食譜

2 squirrel racks – room temperature
2 jersey royal potatoes
1 clove garlic
1 sprig rosemary
500ml goose fat
1 large carrot
50g butter, diced in small pieces
2 wild garlic leaves
50ml oil
Salt and pepper

2塊松鼠頸脊肉——室溫
2個澤西皇家土豆
1瓣大蒜
1枝迷迭香
500ml鵝油
1個大胡蘿卜
50克黃油,切成小塊
2片野蒜葉
50毫升油
鹽和胡椒

Peel the potatoes and gently fry in a little goose fat to add colour. Transfer to a small saucepan, add the garlic and rosemary and enough goose fat to cover the potatoes. Place on a medium heat. Bring the fat to a simmer, reduce the heat and gently simmer for about 30 minutes or until the potatoes are soft and cooked through.

把土豆削皮,用一點鵝油輕輕炒一下,增加色澤。轉移到一個小燉鍋,加入大蒜和迷迭香和足夠的鵝油覆蓋土豆。中火加熱。加鵝油調小火,小火燉30分鐘左右,或者直到土豆變軟煮透。

Peel the carrot and slice. Place in a small pan with a little salt and cover with water. Bring to the boil and cook until the carrot is soft. Drain and reserve the cooking liquor. Using a hand blender, blitz the carrot with the diced butter and season with salt and white pepper. Adjust the consistency if required with the cooking liquor and leave somewhere warm.

胡蘿卜去皮切片。放在一個小鍋里,加一點鹽,加水浸沒。煮至胡蘿卜變軟。瀝干備用。用手動攪拌器,把胡蘿卜和黃油丁攪碎,用鹽和白胡椒粉調味。如果需要,可以用蒸煮液調整稠度,然后放在溫暖的地方。
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Blitz the wild garlic with the oil and pass through a fine sieve.

將野蒜與油混合,過篩。

In a small frying pan, take two spoonfuls of the potato confit fat and heat until it is just beginning to smoke. Turn the heat down slightly and carefully add the squirrel racks and baste for about two minutes. Remove the racks from the pan, season with salt and pepper, and leave somewhere warm.

取一個小煎鍋,放兩勺土豆油,加熱,直到它開始冒煙。把火調小一點,小心地加入松鼠頸脊肉和黃油,煮大約兩分鐘。把頸脊肉從鍋里取出,用鹽和胡椒調味,放在溫暖的地方。

Add a spoonful of the carrot puree to a plate, remove the potatoes from the fat and place on an absorbent cloth for a few seconds. Season with salt, then add to the plate. Place the squirrel rack on top and drizzle with wild garlic oil.

在盤子里加入一勺胡蘿卜泥,將土豆從鵝油中取出,放在吸水布上幾秒鐘。用鹽調味,然后放入盤中。把松鼠頸脊肉放在上面,淋上野蒜油。

原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ribblestockfxtrade.com 轉載請注明出處